Biodiversity

Biodiversity

Vertebrates

The Zoological Survey of India studied and documented about 315 species of various faunal groups belonging to Annelida, Arthropoda (Insecta), Mollusca, Fishes, Amphibia, Reptlia, and Mammals from Silent Valley. These included 8 new records for India and 37 for the Western Ghats. Of the 315 species 39 species including 15 invertebrates are endemic to the Western Ghats.

Mammals

About 41 mammals are recorded from the area. The area harbours a number of mammals especially primates. The area is the abode of several arboreal animals due to the specific nature of vegetation and terrain. Species like Elephants, Lion Tailed Macaque, Nilgiri Langur, Nilgiri Tahr, Tiger, Leopard, Sloth bear, Gaur, etc. are found in this area.

The Lion Tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) populations are confined to tropical wet evergreen forests. The majority of LTM records are made in the southern region of the Park and adjacent areas of Cullenia-Palaquium tree association. They show an altitude preference of 700-1600 metres.

Out of the 17 lesser carnivores reported from Western Ghats so far, 8 including Nilgiri Marten (Martes gwatkinsi) and Rusty spotted cat (Felis rubiginosa) are recorded from Silent Valley and adjoining forest areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

Birds

A total of 211 species of birds belonging to 40 families under 15 orders have been recorded from Silent Valley. Of them 30 species are rare in the area. The highest bird diversity in the area is noted in the disturbed natural studies. The undisturbed evergreen area is rich in the endemics. It’s the breeding ground for elusive Malay/Tiger Bittern. Around 20 species of raptors are found here. Passeriformes have the maximum representation in the area with 113 species under 17 families.

Reptiles

Silent Valley offers one of the widest possible ranges for reptiles like snakes. Occurrence of 25 species of snakes has been confirmed. Evidences of at least 19 more occurring in the area are found. Its home to the largest venomous snake, King Cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah) and some rarities like Beddome’s keelback (Amphiesma beddomei) and Ceylon cat snake (Boiga ceylonensis).The most frequently seen snake is the Rat snake (Ptyas mucosus). Small terrestrial and burrowing species like Kukri snakes (Oligodon spp), the shield tail snake (Uropeltidae) and Keel backs (Amphiesma, Macropisthodon and Xenochropis spp.) are also seen. Apart from this other rarities like Travancore tortoise (Indotestudo travancorica) and Horsfield’s spiny lizard (Salea horsfieldii) are also found here.

Checklist of Reptiles from Silent Valley.

# Scientific Name Common Name Malayalam Names
ORDER TESTUDINES
Family Geoemydidae
1 Melanochelys trijuga (Schweigger, 1812) Indian Black Turtle Kaarama
Family Testudinidae
2 Indotestudo travancorica (Boulenger, 1907) Travancore Tortoise Kattama
ORDER SQUAMATA
Family Agamidae
3 Calotes ellioti (Günther, 1864) Elliot’s
Forest
Lizard
Mullont
4 Calotes calotes (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Green Forest Lizard Pacchayont
5 Calotes rouxii (Duméril & Bibron, 1837) Roux’s Forest Lizard Roksinte Ont
6 Calotes versicolor (Daudin, 1802) Indian Garden Lizard Ont
7 Draco dussumieri (Duméril & Bibron, 1837) South Indian Flying Lizard Parayont
8 Psammophilus dorsalis (Gray, 1831) South Indian Rock Agama Paarayont
9 Salea horsfieldii (Gray, 1845) Horsfield's Spiny Lizard Nilgiri Malayont
Family Gekkonidae
10 Cnemaspis indica (Gray, 1846) Indian Day Gecko Indian Marappalli
11 Cnemaspis Wynadensis (Beddome, 1870) Wayanad Day Gecko Wayanadan Marappalli
12 Cnemaspis sisparensis (Theobald, 1876) Sispara Day Gecko Sispara Marappalli
13 Hemidactylus brookii (Gray, 1845) Brook’s House Gecko Veettu Palli
14 Hemidactylus frenatus (Schlegel, 1836) Asian House Gecko Nattu Palli
Family Scincidae
15 Eutropis carinata (Schneider, 1801) Common Keeled Skink Arana
16 Eutropis macularia (Blyth, 1853) Bronze Grass Skink Chemban Arana
17 Eutropis beddomii (Jerdon, 1870) Beddome's Grass Skink Beddominte Arana
18 Beddome’s Cat Skink (Boulenger, 1887) Ristella beddomii Bedomi Puchayarana
19 Sphenomorphus dussumieri (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) Dussumier’s Litter Skink Kattaran
Family Varanidae
20 Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802) Bengal Monitor Utump
Family Typhlopidae
21 Indotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803) Brahminy Worm Snake
22 Grypotyphlops acutus (Dumeril & Bibron, 1844) Beaked Worm Snake
Family Uropeltidae
23 Melanophidium punctatum (Beddome, 1871) Pied-belly Shieldtail Melivalan Pamp
Family Pythonidae
24 Python molurus (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rock python Perumpamp
Family Colubridae
25 Coelognathus helena (Daudin, 1803) Common Trinket Snake Kattupamp
26 Ptyas mucosa (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rat Snake Chera
27 Oligodon taeniolatus (Jerdon, 1853) Russell’s Kukri Snake Ressel Churutta
28 Oligodon arnensis (Shaw, 1802) Common Kukri Snake Muvarayan Churutta
29 Dendrelaphis ashoki (Vogel and Van Roojen, 2011) Ashok's Bronzeback Tree Snake Varayan Villunni
30 Dendrelaphis grandoculis (Boulenger. 1890) Large-eyed Bronzeback Tree Snake Mala Komberi Pamp
31 Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw, 1802) Ornate Flying Snake Nagathan Pamp
32 Lycodon travancoricus (Beddome ,1870) Travancore Wolf Snake Thiruvithankur Vellivarayan
33 Lycodon aulicus (Linnaeus, 1754) Common Wolf Snake Vellivarayan Pamp
34 Boiga ceylonensis (Günther, 1858) Ceylon Cat Snake Kattuvalayan Pamp
35 Ahaetulla nasuta (Bonnaterre, 1790) Common Vine Snake Pachola Pamp
36 Ahaetulla disar (Gunther, 1864) Gunther's Vine Snake Malampachola Pamp
37 Ahaetulla perroteti (Dumeril, Bibron and Dumeril, 1864) Bronze-headed Vine Snake Chola Pacholan
Family Natricidae
38 Amphiesma stolatum (Linnaeus, 1758) Striped Keelback Theliyan Pamp
39 Hebius beddomei (Günther, 1864) Beddome’s Keelback Kattu Nirkkoli
40 Xenochrophis piscator (Schneider, 1799) Checkered Keelback Nirkkoli
41 Macropisthodon plumbicolor (Cantor, 1839) Green Keelback Pachanagam
Family Elapidae
42 Bungarus caeruleus (Schneider, 1801) Common Indian Krait Vellikettan/Sanguvarayan
43 Calliophis nigrescens (Gunther, 1862) Striped Coral Snake Ettadi Murkhan
44 Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758) Spectacled Cobra Murkhan
45 Ophiophagus hannah (Cantor, 1836) King Cobra Rajavempala
Family Viperidae
46 Daboia russelii (Shaw & Nodder, 1797) Russel’s Viper Anali
47 Echis carinatus (Schneider, 1801) Saw-scaled Viper Churutta Mandali
48 Trimeresurus malabaricus (Jerdon, 1854) Malabar Pit Viper Chola Mandali
49 Trimeresurus strigatus (Gray, 1842) Horseshoe Pit Viper Latamandali

Amphibians

47 species of amphibians recorded from the area with several endemics. Some of them include Bufo silent valleynsis, Raorchestes lechiya, Micrixalus nudis, M. thampii, Nannobatrachus beddomei, Pedostibes tuberculosus, Philalithus signatus, Ramanella triangularis and Rhacophorus malabaricus etc.

List of Amphibians

Sl. No

ORDER

FAMILY

Common English name

Species

1

ANURA

BUFONIDAE

Common Indian Toad

Duttaphrynus melanostictus

2

ANURA

BUFONIDAE

Ridged Toad

Duttaphrynus parietalis

3

ANURA

BUFONIDAE

Silent Valley Toad

Duttaphrynus silentvalleyensis

4

ANURA

BUFONIDAE

Red Stream Toad

Ghatophryne rubigina

5

ANURA

BUFONIDAE

Malabar Tree Toad

Pedostibes tuberculosus

6

ANURA

DICROGLOSSIDAE

Skittering Frog

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis

7

ANURA

DICROGLOSSIDAE

Kerala Warty Frog

Fejervarya keralensis

8

ANURA

DICROGLOSSIDAE

Nilgiris wart frog

Fejervarya nilagirica

9

ANURA

DICROGLOSSIDAE

Indian Bullfrog

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

10

ANURA

MICRIXALIDAE

Nilgiri Dancing Frog

Micrixalus phyllophilus

11

ANURA

MICRIXALIDAE

Sairandhri Dancing Frog

Micrixalus sairandhri

12

ANURA

MICRIXALIDAE

Wayanad Dancing Frog

Micrixalus saxicola

13

ANURA

MICRIXALIDAE

Forest Dancing Frog

Micrixalus silvaticus

14

ANURA

MICRIXALIDAE

Silent Valley Dancing Frog

Micrixalus thampi

15

ANURA

MICROHYLIDAE

Painted Frog

Uperodon taprobanius

16

ANURA

MICROHYLIDAE

Jerdon’s Ramanella

Uperodon montanus

17

ANURA

NASIKABATRACHIDAE

Purple Frog

Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis

18

ANURA

NYCTIBATRACHIDAE

Wayanad Night Frog

Nyctibatrachus grandis

19

ANURA

NYCTIBATRACHIDAE

Kempholey Night Frog

Nyctibatrachus kempholeyensis

20

ANURA

NYCTIBATRACHIDAE

Miniature Night Frog

Nyctibatrachus minimus

21

ANURA

NYCTIBATRACHIDAE

VUB Night Frog

Nyctibatrachus vrijeuni

22

ANURA

RANIDAE

Bicoloured Frog

Clinotarsus curtipes

23

ANURA

RANIDAE

Yellowish Golden-backed frog

Indosylvirana flavescens

24

ANURA

RANIDAE

Indian Golden-backed frog

Indosylvirana indica

25

ANURA

RANIXALIDAE

Beddome's leaping frog

Indirana beddomii

26

ANURA

RANIXALIDAE

South Indian Frog

Indirana semipalmata

27

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Green Tree Frog

Ghatixalus variabilis

28

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Charpa Tree frog

Polypedates occidentalis

29

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Jerdon's Bush Frog

Pseudophilautus  wynaadensis

30

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Variable Bush Frog

Raorchestes akroparallagi

31

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Anil's Bush Frog

Raorchestes anili

32

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Seshachar’s Bush Frog

Raorchestes charius

33

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Confusing Green Bush Frog

Raorchestes chromasynchysi

34

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Glandular Bush frog

Raorchestes glandulosus

35

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Lechiyappan's Bush Frog

Raorchestes lechia

36

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Water Drop Frog

Raorchestes nerostagona

37

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Ochlandrae Reed Bush Frog

Raorchestes ochlandrae

38

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Large Ponmudi Bush Frog

Raorchestes ponmudi

39

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Kudremukh Bush Frog

Raorchestes tuberohumerus

40

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Ravi's Bush Frog

Raorchestes ravii

41

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Star-eyed Bush Frog

Raorchestes signatus

42

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Silent Valley Bush Frog

Raorchestes silentvalleyensis

43

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Small Tree Frog

Rhacophorus lateralis

44

ANURA

RHACOPHORIDAE

Malabar Gliding Frog

Rhacophorus malabaricus

45

GYMNOPHIONA

ICHTHYOPHIIDAE

Bombay Caecilian

Ichthyophis bombayensis

46

GYMNOPHIONA

ICHTHYOPHIIDAE

Long-headed Caecilian

Ichthyophis longicephalus

47

GYMNOPHIONA

ICHTHYOPHIIDAE

 Caecilian

Uraeotyphlus sps

Fishes

12 species of fishes are recorded from Kunthi River. Around 40 species of fishes are recorded from Kuthi and Bhavani River system combined. Some of the fishes from Kunthi River include Anguilla bengalensis, Barillius gatensis, Channa gachua, Garra mullya, G. menoni, Glyphothorax gnnadalei, Homaloptera montana, H. pillaii, Lepiodocephalus thermalis, Noemacheilus triangularis, N. guentheri and Puntius melanpyx.

Invertebrates

A total of 164 species of butterflies are recorded from the area. Rarities include — Sahyadri Birdwing, Pachliopta pandiyana — Malabar Rose , Papilio liomedo — Malabar Banded Swallowtail, Papilio Buddha — Malabar Banded Peacock, Parantirrhoea marshalli — Travancore Evening Brown and Burara gomata kanara — Sahyadri Pale Green Awlet. Also 400 species of moths (belonging to 19 families) are found here. The butterflies mostly belong to the families Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae. The fauna contained several endemic and rare species. 18 species of butterflies are reported to be extremely rare. The moths recorded mostly belong to Noctuidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae, and Arctiidae. In general, the Lepidopteran fauna showed resemblance to that of Sri Lanka and contain elements with Malayan, African and Australian affinities. Apart from this 35 species of Odonates are 69 species of ants are also recorded from Silent Valley.

Checklist of Butterflies

1.    Troides minos (Cramer, [1779]) — Sahyadri Birdwing

2.    Pachliopta pandiyana (Moore, 1881) — Malabar Rose

3.    Pachliopta aristolochiae aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775) — Indian Common Rose

4.    Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus, 1758) — Crimson Rose

5.    Graphium agamemnon menides (Fruhstorfer, 1904) — Dakhan Tailed Jay

6.    Graphium doson eleius (Felder & Felder, 1864) — Dakhan Common Jay

7.    Graphium teredon (Felder & Felder, 1865) — Narrow-banded Bluebottle

8.    Papilio clytia clytia Linnaeus, 1758 — Oriental Common Mime

9.    Papilio demoleus demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 — Northern Lime Swallowtail

10.  Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880 — Malabar Raven

11.  Papilio helenus daksha Hampson, 1888 — Sahyadri Red Helen

12.  Papilio liomedon Moore, [1875] — Malabar Banded Swallowtail

13.  Papilio polymnestor polymnestor Cramer, [1775] — Indian Blue Mormon

14.  Papilio polytes romulus Cramer, [1775] — Indian Common Mormon

15.  Papilio paris tamilana Moore, 1881 — Sahyadri Paris Peacock

16.  Papilio buddha Westwood, 1872 — Malabar Banded Peacock

17.  Catopsilia pomona pomona (Fabricius, 1775) — Oriental Lemon Emigrant

18.  Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Mottled Emigrant

19.  Eurema blanda silhetana (Wallace, 1867) — Sylhet Three-spot Grass Yellow

20.  Eurema hecabe hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Common Grass Yellow

21.  Delias eucharis (Drury, 1773) — Indian Jezebel

22.  Pieris canidia canis Evans, 1912 — Sahyadri Cabbage White

23.  Cepora nerissa phryne (Fabricius, 1775) — Dakhan Common Gull

24.  Appias albina swinhoei (Moore, 1905) — Sahyadri Common Albatross

25.  Appias indra shiva (Swinhoe, 1885) — Sahyadri Plain Puffin

26.  Appias lalage lalage (Doubleday, 1842) — Himalayan Spot Puffin.

27.  Appias lyncida latifasciata Moore, 1881 — Sahyadri Chocolate Albatross

28.  Appias wardii (Moore, 1884) — Sahyadri Albatross

29.  Leptosia nina nina (Fabricius, 1793) — Oriental Psyche

30.  Pareronia hippia (Fabricius, 1787) — Common Wanderer

31.  Hebomoia glaucippe australis Butler, 1898 — Sahyadri Great Orange-tip

32.  Discophora lepida lepida (Moore, 1857) — Sahyadri Duffer

33.  Elymnias caudata Butler, 1871 — Tailed Palmfly

34.  Melanitis leda leda (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Common Evening Brown

35.  Melanitis phedima varaha Moore, 1857 — Sahyadri Dark Evening Brown

36.  Parantirrhoea marshalli Wood-Mason, 1881 — Travancore Evening Brown

37.  Lethe drypetis todara Moore, 1881 — Dakhan Treebrown

38.  Lethe europa europa (Fabricius, 1775) — Dakhan Bamboo Treebrown

39.  Lethe rohria neelgheriensis (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Common Treebrown

40.  Mycalesis anaxias anaxias Hewitson, 1862 — Sahyadri White-bar Bushbrown

41.  Mycalesis junonia Butler, 1868 — Malabar Glad-eye Bushbrown

42.  Mycalesis mineus polydecta (Cramer, [1777]) — Dakhan Dark-branded Bushbrown

43.  Mycalesis perseus tabitha (Fabricius, 1793) — Dakhan Common Bushbrown

44.  Mycalesis subdita Moore, 1892 — Tamil Bushbrown

45.  Orsotriaena medus mandata (Moore, 1857) — Sahyadri Medus Brown

46.  Telinga adolphei (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Red-eye Bushbrown

47.  Ypthima baldus baldus (Fabricius, 1775) — Common Five-ring

48.  Ypthima ceylonica Hewitson, 1865 — White Four-ring

49.  Ypthima chenu (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Nilgiri Four-ring

50.  Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871 — Common Four-ring

51.  Zipaetis saitis Hewitson, 1863 — Banded Catseye

52.  Rohana parisatis atacinus Fruhstorfer, 1913 — Sahyadri Black Prince

53.  Ariadne ariadne indica (Moore, 1884) — Indian Angled Castor

54.  Ariadne merione merione (Cramer, [1777]) — Dakhan Common Castor

55.  Charaxes agraria Swinhoe, 1887 — Anomalous Nawab

56.  Charaxes bharata Felder & Felder, [1867] — Indian Nawab

57.  Charaxes schreiber wardii (Moore, 1896) — Sahyadri Blue Nawab

58.  Cyrestis thyodamas indica Evans, 1924 — Common Map

59.  Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) — Tawny Coster

60.  Cethosia mahratta Moore, 1872 — Sahyadri Lacewing

61.  Argynnis castetsi hybrida (Evans, 1912) — Nilgiri Fritillary

62.  Cirrochroa thais thais (Fabricius, 1787) — Sahyadri Yeoman

63.  Cupha erymanthis maja Fruhstorfer, 1898 — Sahyadri Rustic

64.  Phalanta phalantha phalantha (Drury, [1773]) — Oriental Common Leopard

65.  Vindula erota saloma de Nicéville, 1886 — Sahyadri Cruiser

66.  Libythea laius lepitoides Moore, 1903 — Sahyadri Lobed Beak

67.  Libythea myrrha rama Moore, 1872 — Sri Lankan Club Beak

68.  Euthalia aconthea meridionalis Fruhstorfer, 1913 — Dakhan Baron

69.  Euthalia lubentina lubentina (Cramer, [1777]) — Sahyadri Gaudy Baron

70.  Tanaecia lepidea miyana (Fruhstorfer, 1913) — Peninsular Grey Count

71.  Athyma inara Westwood, 1850 — Color Sergeant

72.  Athyma perius perius (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Common Sergeant

73.  Athyma ranga karwara (Fruhstorfer, 1906) — Karwar Blackvein Sergeant

74.  Athyma selenophora kanara (Evans, 1924) — Staff Sergeant

75.  Moduza procris procris Fruhstorfer, 1906 — Sahyadri Commander

76.  Neptis hylas varmona Moore, 1872 — Indian Common Sailer

77.  Neptis jumbah nalanda Fruhstorfer, 1908 — Nalanda Chestnut-streaked Sailer

78.  Pantoporia hordonia hordonia (Stoll, [1790]) — Oriental Common Lascar

79.  Pantoporia sandaka davidsoni Eliot, 1969 — Indian Extra Lascar

80.  Parthenos sylvia virens Moore, 1877 — Sahyadri Clipper

81.  Hypolimnas bolina jacintha (Drury, 1773) — Oriental Great Eggfly

82.  Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764) — Danaid Eggfly

83.  Junonia almana almana (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Peacock Pansy

84.  Junonia atlites atlites (Linnaeus, 1763) — Oriental Grey Pansy

85.  Junonia hierta hierta (Fabricius, 1798) — Oriental Yellow Pansy

86.  Junonia iphita iphita (Cramer, [1779]) — Chocolate Pansy

87.  Junonia lemonias lemonias (Linnaeus, 1758) — Chinese Lemon Pansy

88.  Junonia orithya Butler, 1885 — Pale Blue Pansy

89.  Kallima horsfieldii Kollar, [1844] — Southern Blue Oakleaf

90.  Kaniska canace viridis Evans, 1924 — Sahyadri Blue Admiral

91.  Vanessa indica pholoe (Fruhstorfer, 1912) — Sahyadri Red Admiral

92.  Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Plain Tiger

93.  Danaus genutia genutia (Cramer, [1779]) — Oriental Striped Tiger

94.  Euploea core core (Cramer, [1780]) — Indian Common Crow

95.  Euploea klugii kollari Felder & Felder, [1865] — Brown King Crow

96.  Euploea sylvester coreta (Godart, 1819) — Double-branded Black Crow

97.  Idea malabarica (Moore, 1877) — Malabar Tree-Nymph

98.  Parantica aglea aglea (Stoll, [1782]) — Coromandel Glassy Tiger

99.  Parantica nilgiriensis (Moore, 1877) — Nilgiri Tiger

100. Tirumala limniace exoticus (Gmelin, 1790) — Oriental Blue Tiger

101. Tirumala septentrionis dravidarum Fruhstorfer, 1899 — Dakhan Dark Blue Tiger

102. Abisara bifasciata suffusa Moore, 1882 — Suffused Double-banded Judy

103. Spalgis epius epius (Westwood, 1852) — Oriental Apefly

104. Anthene lycaenina lycaenina (Felder, 1868) — Dakhan Pointed Ciliate Blue

105. Acytolepis puspa felderi Toxopeus, 1927 — Malabar Common Hedge Blue

106. Caleta decidia (Hewitson, 1876) — Angled Pierrot

107. Castalius rosimon rosimon (Fabricius, 1775) — Continental Common Pierrot

108. Chilades lajus lajus (Stoll, [1780])  — Indian Lime Blue

109. Chilades pandava pandava (Horsfield, [1829]) — Oriental Plains Cupid

110. Discolampa ethion ethion Westwood, 1851 — Oriental Banded Blue Pierrot

111. Euchrysops cnejus cnejus (Fabricius, 1798) — Oriental Gram Blue

112. Everes lacturnus syntala Cantlie, 1963 — Dakhan Cupid

113. Freyeria trochylus (Freyer, 1845) — African Grass Jewel

114. Jamides alecto eurysaces (Fruhstorfer, 1916) — Himalayan Metallic Cerulean

115. Jamides bochus bochus (Stoll, [1782]) — Indian Dark Cerulean

116. Jamides celeno celeno (Cramer, [1775]) — Oriental Common Cerulean

117. Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767) — Pea Blue

118. Leptotes plinius plinius (Fabricius, 1793) — Asian Zebra Blue

119. Neopithecops zalmora dharma (Moore, [1881]) — Sri Lankan Common Quaker

120. Megisba malaya thwaitesi (Moore, [1881]) — Tailless Malayan

121. Nacaduba kurava canaraica Toxopeus, 1927 — Karwar Transparent Six-Lineblue

122. Petrelaea dana (de Nicéville, [1884]) — Dingy Lineblue

123. Prosotas dubiosa indica (Evans, [1925]) — Indian Tailless Lineblue

124. Prosotas nora ardates (Moore, [1875]) — Indian Common Lineblue

125. Prosotas noreia hampsonii (de Nicéville, 1885) — Indian White-tipped Lineblue

126. Pseudozizeeria  maha ossa (Swinhoe, 1885) — Dakhan Pale Grass Blue

127. Talicada nyseus nyseus (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Indian Red Pierrot

128. Zizeeria karsandra (Moore, 1865) — Dark Grass Blue

129. Zizina otis indica (Murray, 1874) — Indian Lesser Grass Blue

130. Zizula hylax hylax (Fabricius, 1775) — Indian Tiny Grass Blue

131. Amblypodia anita dina Fruhstorfer, 1907 — Indian Purple Leaf Blue

132. Spindasis vulcanus (Fabricius, 1775) — Common Silverline

133. Arhopala amantes amantes (Hewitson, 1862) — Lankan Large Oakblue

134. Arhopala centaurus pirama (Moore, [1881]) — Tamil Centaur Oakblue

135. Surendra quercetorum biplagiata Butler, 1883 — Dakhan Common Acacia Blue

136. Cheritra freja butleri Cowan, 1965 — Sahyadri Common Imperial

137. Rapala manea schistacea (Moore, 1879) — Bengal Slate Flash

138. Rathinda amor (Fabricius, 1775) — Monkey Puzzle

139. Pratapa deva deva (Moore, [1858]) — Indian White Tufted Royal

140. Tajuria cippus cippus (Fabricius, 1798) — Indian Peacock Royal

141. Loxura atymnus atymnus (Stoll, [1780]) — Yamfly

142. Badamia exclamationis (Fabricius, 1775) — Brown Awl

143. Burara gomata kanara (Evans, 1926) — Sahyadri Pale Green Awlet

144. Burara jaina fergusonii (de Nicéville, [1893]) — Sahyadri Orange Awlet

145. Choaspes benjaminii benjaminii (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Sahyadri Indian Awlk ing

146. Hasora chromus chromus (Cramer, [1780]) — Oriental Common Banded Awl

147. Celaenorrhinus  fusca (Hampson, 1888) — Dusky Spotted Flat

148. Celaenorrhinus  leucocera (Kollar, [1844]) — Common Spotted Flat

149. Pseudocoladenia  dan dan (Fabricius, 1787) — Sahyadri Fulvous Pied Flat

150. Sarangesa dasahara davidsoni Moore, [1866] — Indian Common Small Flat

151. Caprona ransonnettii potiphera (Hewitson, 1873) — Dakhan Golden Angle

152. Coladenia indrani indra Evans, 1926 — Dakhan Tricolor Pied Flat

153. Odontoptilum angulata angulata (Felder, 1862) — Oriental Chestnut Angle

154. Tagiades gana silvia Evans, 1934 — Dakhan Suffused Snow Flat

155. Tagiades litigiosa litigiosa Möschler, 1878 — Sylhet Water Snow Flat

156. Spialia galba (Fabricius, 1793) — Indian Grizzled Skipper

157. Baracus hampsoni Elwes & Edwards, 1897 — Malabar Hedge Hopper

158. Erionota torus Evans, 1941 — Rounded Palm-Redeye

159. Gangara thyrsis thyrsis (Fabricius, 1775) — Oriental Giant Redeye

160. Hyarotis adrastus praba (Moore, [1866]) — Bengal Tree Flitter

161. Iambrix salsala luteipalpis (Plötz, 1886) — Southern Chestnut Bob

162. Matapa aria (Moore, [1866]) — Common Branded Redeye

163. Udaspes folus (Cramer, [1775]) — Grass Demon

164. Notocrypta curvifascia curvifascia (Felder & Felder, 1862) — Chinese Restricted Dem on

165. Notocrypta paralysos mangla Evans, 1949 — Sahyadri Common Banded Demon

166. Psolos fuligo subfasciatus (Moore, 1878) — Indian Dusky Partwing

167. Quedara basiflava (de Nicéville, [1889]) — Yellow-base Flitter

168. Salanoemia sala (Hewitson, [1866]) — Maculate Lancer

169. Suastus gremius gremius (Fabricius, 1798) — Indian Palm Bob

170. Halpe hindu Evans, 1937 — Sahyadri Banded Ace

171. Sovia hyrtacus (de Nicéville, 1897) – White-branded Ace

172. Thoressa astigmata (Swinhoe, 1890) — Unbranded Ace

173. Oriens concinna (Elwes & Edwards, 1897) — Sahyadri Dartlet

174. Oriens goloides (Moore, [1881]) — Smaller Dartlet

175. Potanthus palnia palnia (Evans, 1914) — Palni Dart

176. Taractrocera ceramas (Hewitson, 1868) — Incomplete Tawny-spotted Grass Dart

177. Telicota bambusae bambusae (Moore, 1878) — Oriental Dark Palm-Dart

178. Borbo cinnara (Wallace, 1866) — Rice Swift

179. Caltoris kumara kumara (Moore, 1878) — Sahyadri Blank Swift

180. Polytremis lubricans lubricans (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) — Oriental Contiguous Swift

Checklist of Odonates

Scientific name

English Name

1.   Anax guttatus (Burmeister, 1839)

Blue-Tailed Green Darner

2.   Anax immaculifrons Rambur, 1842

Blue Darner

3.   Heliogomphus promelas (Selys,1873)

Spotted Lyretail

4.   Merogomphus longistigma (Fraser,1922)

Long Legged Clubtail

5.   Onychogomphus Sps

Clawtail

6.   Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur,1842)

Ground Skimmer

7.   Hylaeothemis indica Fraser,1946

Blue Hawklet

8.   Orthetrum chrysis (Selys, 1891)

Brown-Backed Red Marsh Hawk

9.   Orthetrum glaucum (Brauer, 1865)

Blue Marsh Hawk

10. Orthetrum luzonicum (Brauer, 1868)

Tricoloured Marsh Hawk

11. Orthetrum pruinosum (Burmeister,1839)

Crimson-Tailed Marsh Hawk

12. Orthetrum sabina (Drury, 1770)

Green Marsh Hawk

13. Orthetrum triangulare (Selys, 1878)

Blue-Tailed Forest Hawk

14. Palpopleura sexmaculata (Fabricius, 1787)

Blue-Tailed Yellow Skimmer

15. Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)

Wandering Glider

16. Potamarcha congener (Rambur, 1842)

Yellow-Tailed Ashy Skimmer

17. Tholymis tillarga (Fabricius, 1798)

Coral-Tailed Cloud-Wing

18. Trithemis aurora (Burmeister, 1839)

Crimson Marsh Glider

19. Trithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842)

Black Stream Glider

20. Epophthalmia frontalis Selys, 1871

Spotted Torrent Hawk

21. Neurobasis chinensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Stream Glory

22. Vestalis apicalis Selys, 1873

Black-Tipped Forest Glory

23. Rhinocypha bisignata Hagen in Selys,1853

Stream Ruby

24. Aciagrion hisopa (Selys, 1876)

Violet-Striped Slender Dartlet

25. Ischnura aurora (Brauer, 1865)

Golden Dartlet

26. Pseudagrion rubriceps Selys, 1876

Saffron-Faced Grass Dart

27. Euphaea dispar (Rambur,1842)

Nilgiri Torrent Dart

28. Euphaea fraseri (Laidlaw,1920)

Malabar Torrent Dart

29. Copera marginipes (Rambur, 1842)

Yellow Bush Dart

30. Protosticta gravelyi Laidlaw,1915

Pied Reedtail

31. Protosticta hearseyi Fraser,1922

Little Reedtail

32. Caconeura gomphoides (Rambur,1842)

Pale Spotted Bambootail

33. Caconeura risi (Fraser,1931)

Wayanad Bambootail

34. Esme longistyla Fraser,1931

Nilgiri Bambootail

35. Phylloneura westermanni (Selys,1860)

Myristica Bambootail

Flora

Forest types and composition

The forests of Silent Valley Division can be categorized into the following types based on Champion and Seth Classification, 1968.

  • Southern Hill Top Tropical Evergreen Forest - 1A / C3         
  • West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests - I A / C4
  • Cane Brakes - 1B / E1
  • Wet Bamboo Brakes - I / E2
  • West Coast Semi Evergreen Forests - 2 A / C2
  • West Coast Secondary Evergreen Dipterocarp Forests- 2A / 2S1
  • Nilgiri Sub Tropical Hill Forests                                            - 8 A /  C1
  • Reed Brakes - 8A  /C1 /E1
  • South Indian Sub tropical Hill Savannah Woodland - 8A / C1 / DS1.
  • Southern Montane Wet Temperate Forests - IIA /C1
  • Southern Montane Wet Scrub - II A /C1/ DS 1.
  • Southern Montane Wet Grasslands - II A/ C1/ DS2.

About 75-80% of the land in the Protected Area is covered with thick woody vegetation and about 20%of the area is having grassland which are anthropogenic as well as natural in origin and little area is under rocky patches with little vegetation cover and water body such as river, ponds and pools.Silent Valley harbours over 2000 species of plants with over 1000 Angiosperms (Flowering plants) that belong to 136 families. 100 fern and fern allies, 200 liverworts, 100 mosses, 325 fungi, 75 lichens and 200 species of algae are found here.Around 117 orchids are found here.

Key / Unique habitats

Cane Brakes

Cane brakes comprises of an impenetrable thorny thicket sometimes with a few tall trees standing over it, sometimes without it. The stems are typically trailing and may be 60 m or more long, but some species are more or less erect. The soil is permanently wet and usually fine clay, very rich in humus. Important species is Calamus spp.

Wet Bamboo Brakes

Wet bamboo brakes are usually found along streams. The brakes are often dense, even if the bamboos grow in clumps. The bamboos tend to be of the smaller types rather than the big clumped species. Important species is Ochlandra spp.

West Coast Semi Evergreen Forests

Intermediate between tropical evergreen and the moist deciduous forests with evergreen and deciduous dominants usually intimately mixed. Lower storey is mainly evergreen. This type is found mostly on hill slopes from 450 to 1050 mtrs.
Floristics: I. Adina cordifolia, Holoptelea integrifolia, Mesua ferrea, Pterocarpus marsupium, Sterculia guttata, Terminalia tomentosa, Cedrela toona etc.
II. Bischofia javanica, Mallotus philippensis, Kydia calycina, Schleichera oleosa, Evodia luna-ankenda etc.IIa. Bambusa arundinacea, Ochlandra sp.

West Coast Secondary Evergreen Dipterocarp Forests

This type is characterized by nearly pure evergreen Dipterocarpaceae of relatively poor development but with an even and typically dense canopy, without a definite middle storey but with an undergrowth of evergreen shrubs.
Floristics: I/II. Polyalthia fragrans, Vateria indica, Tetrameles nudiflora, Hopea parviflora, Vitex altissima, Salmalia malabarica, Glochidium sp., Macaranga peltata etc.Heavy undergrowth of reeds (Ochlandra sp.)

Nilgiri Sub Tropical Hill Forests

This type is similar to tropical rain forest but not so luxuriant, the trees being smaller and with less shapely boles, and often festooned with herbaceous and cryptogamic epiphytes. A dense undergrowth of Strobilanthes is frequently present. This type is usually distinct above an elevation of 1500 m and thrives best at higher levels, though a transition stage may be distinguished between 1350m and 1500m with characteristic intermediate between tropical rain forest and tropical evergreens.
Floristics: I. Calophyllum elatum, Actinodaphne hookerii, Litsea stockii, Cinnamomum sulphuratum, Canthium dicoccum, Eugenia sp, Rhododendrom nilgiricum, Gaultheria frangitissima.
II. Strobilanthes spp.

Reed Brakes

This type is restricted to moist area and found along streams. It comprise of impenetrable thickets 3 to 5 metre high with scattered over wood of evergreen trees. Floristics: I. Vernonia monosis, Eugenia spp., Palaquium ellipticum.
II. Ochlandra wightii, Ochlandra travancorica.

South Indian Subtropical Hill Savannah Woodland

This is an open savannah forest with tall coarse grass even 2-3 metre high and scattered trees nearly all deciduous and fire hardy shrubs. This type is found between 1100 metre and 1700 metre.
Floristics: I. Dalbergia latifolia, Anogeissus latifolia.
II. Emblica officianalis, Wendlandia notoniana, Olea dioica.
III. Phoenix humilis.
IV b. Heavy grasses

Southern Montane Wet Temperate Forests

This is a closed evergreen forest; the trees being mostly short boled and branchy though often attaining a considerable girth. The height of the forest is relatively low, rarely exceeding 6 metres. The crowns are usually very dense and rounded with entire coriaceous leaves which tend to be red to a varying degree when young, giving a range of colours which is one of the most conspicuous features of this type. The branches are clothed with mosses, ferns and other epiphytes. The forest is usually found in patches (sholas) in the more sheltered sites on rolling grasslands. . In all the upper reaches of Silent Valley above 1800 metres this type is encountered. The flora is a varied one including elements of both tropical and temperate origin.
Floristics: I. Ternstroemia gymnanthera, Eugenia calophyllifolia, E. Arnottiana, E.montana, Michelia nilgirica, Gordonia obtusa, Xantolis tomentosa, Ilex wightiana, Meliosma wightii, Elaeocarpus spp. Photinia montana, Cinnamomum wightii, Litsea wightiana, Rhododendren nilagiricum, Euonymaus crenulatus, Glochidion neilgherrense, Symplocos laurina etc.
II. Turpinia cochinchinensis, Rhamnus wightii, Viburnum erubescence etc.
III. Gaultheria fragrantissima, Psychotria congesta, Vaccinium leschenaultia, Mahonia leschenaultii, Strobilanthes spp. IV a.Impatiens spp.
V. Rosa leschenaultiana, Clematis wightiana, Rubus spp., Schefflera spp., Elaeagnus latifolia, Toddalia asiatica.

Southern Montane Wet Scrub

This is the low evergreen scrub of varying density often with bracken form and seedlings or often stunted growth of shola species, notably Rhododendron and
Eugenia arnotiana. Floristics: Rhodomyrtus, Hypericum mysorense, Dodonaea viscosa, Mahonia leschenaultia, Berberis tinctoria, Rubus spp., Strobilanthes spp., Pteridium aquilinum.

Southern Montane Wet Grasslands

This type occurs in rolling downlands.
Floristics: I &II. Nil
IV b. Bothriocloa pertusa, Ischaemum pilosum, Themeda cymbarica, T. triandra, Cymbopogon polyneuros, Eragrostis nigra, Tripogon bromoides.

RET species

Silent Valley harbours a good number of wild relatives of crop plants. The crop species diversity observed in genera like Piper, Syzygium, Solanum, Dioscorea, Garcinia and Panicum is quite remarkable.

Two species of Orchids, Ipsea malabarica and Vanda thwaitesii, which were long thought to be extinct, were rediscovered from Silent Valley. Dendrobium panduratum, thought to be endemic to Sri Lanka and extinct was recorded from Silent Valley. Three species have very narrow range of distribution, Bulbophyllum silentvalliensis, Eria tiagii, and Ipsea malabaricai> which are endemic to Silent Valley. Among the orchids, 45 species and one sub species belonging to 27 genera are terrestrial in habit while 66 species in 27 genera are epiphytic.

The Cullenia exarillata has been identified as a key stone species for the park area. It provides resources such as fruits for LTM, Nilgiri langur, Giant squirrels and birds. Other species identified as key stone species and para key stone species are Macaranga indica, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Ficus spp. Maesa indica, Carpus spp. Thunbergia mysorensis, and Loranthus spp.

Many new and interesting plants have been reported from Silent valley including species like Embelia gardneriana, Hedyotis hirsutissima, Nostolachma crassifolia and Murdannia lanceolata.