The Western Ghats boasts one of the richest and unexplored landscapes in the world. The forests of the Silent Valley National Park harbour some of the most pristine, unique and highly productive forests in the world. In biogeographical sense Silent Valley and adjoining forests represent ‘Ecological islands’ in which conditions that prevailed before anthopogenic activities still exists. Exceptional species diversity and endemic value of Evergreen and Semi Evergreen communities is seen here. 41 mammals, 211 birds, 49 reptiles, 47 amphibians, 12 fishes, 164 butterflies and 400 species of moths are found here. Apart from this the park harbors a viable population of Lion tailed macaques which also is the flagship species of the Park. The indigenous tribal groups that live within park boundaries include Irulas, Kurumbas, Mudugas and Kattunaikkars, the ethnic heritage of these communities is well protected.